Ubuntu 16.04 introduced the Canonical Distribution of Kubernetes, a pure upstream distribution of Kubernetes designed for production usage. This page shows you how to deploy a cluster.
Out of the box the deployment comes with the following components on 9 machines:
|IaaS Provider||Config. Mgmt||OS||Networking||Docs||Conforms||Support Level|
|Amazon Web Services (AWS)||Juju||Ubuntu||flannel, calico*||docs||Commercial, Community|
|OpenStack||Juju||Ubuntu||flannel, calico||docs||Commercial, Community|
|Microsoft Azure||Juju||Ubuntu||flannel||docs||Commercial, Community|
|Google Compute Engine (GCE)||Juju||Ubuntu||flannel, calico||docs||Commercial, Community|
|VMware vSphere||Juju||Ubuntu||flannel, calico||docs||Commercial, Community|
|Bare Metal (MAAS)||Juju||Ubuntu||flannel, calico||docs||Commercial, Community|
For support level information on all solutions, see the Table of solutions chart.
You can launch a cluster in one of two ways: conjure-up or juju deploy. Conjure-up is just a convenience wrapper over juju and simplifies the installation. As such, it is the preferred method of install.
To install Kubernetes with conjure-up, you need only to run the following commands and then follow the prompts:
sudo snap install conjure-up --classic conjure-up kubernetes
After deciding which cloud to deploy to, follow the cloud setup page to configure deploying to that cloud.
Load your cloud credentials for each cloud provider you would like to use.
In this example
juju add-credential aws credential name: my_credentials select auth-type [userpass, oauth, etc]: userpass enter username: jorge enter password: *******
You can also just auto load credentials for popular clouds with the
juju autoload-credentials command, which will auto import your credentials from the default files and environment variables for each cloud.
Next we need to bootstrap a controller to manage the cluster. You need to define the cloud you want to bootstrap on, the region, and then any name for your controller node:
juju update-clouds # This command ensures all the latest regions are up to date on your client juju bootstrap aws/us-east-2
or, another example, this time on Azure:
juju bootstrap azure/westus2
If you receive this error, it is likely that the default Azure VM size (Standard D1 v2 [1 vcpu, 3.5 GB memory]) is not available in the Azure location:
ERROR failed to bootstrap model: instance provisioning failed (Failed)
You will need a controller node for each cloud or region you are deploying to. See the controller documentation for more information.
Note that each controller can host multiple Kubernetes clusters in a given cloud or region.
The following command will deploy the initial 9-node starter cluster. The speed of execution is very dependent of the performance of the cloud you’re deploying to:
juju deploy canonical-kubernetes
After this command executes the cloud will then launch instances and begin the deployment process.
juju status command provides information about each unit in the cluster. Use the
watch -c juju status --color command to get a real-time view of the cluster as it deploys. When all the states are green and “Idle”, the cluster is ready to be used:
Model Controller Cloud/Region Version SLA conjure-canonical-kubern-f48 conjure-up-aws-650 aws/us-east-2 2.3.2 unsupported App Version Status Scale Charm Store Rev OS Notes easyrsa 3.0.1 active 1 easyrsa jujucharms 27 ubuntu etcd 2.3.8 active 3 etcd jujucharms 63 ubuntu flannel 0.9.1 active 4 flannel jujucharms 40 ubuntu kubeapi-load-balancer 1.10.3 active 1 kubeapi-load-balancer jujucharms 43 ubuntu exposed kubernetes-master 1.9.3 active 1 kubernetes-master jujucharms 13 ubuntu kubernetes-worker 1.9.3 active 3 kubernetes-worker jujucharms 81 ubuntu exposed Unit Workload Agent Machine Public address Ports Message easyrsa/0* active idle 3 126.96.36.199 Certificate Authority connected. etcd/0 active idle 5 188.8.131.52 2379/tcp Healthy with 3 known peers etcd/1* active idle 0 184.108.40.206 2379/tcp Healthy with 3 known peers etcd/2 active idle 6 220.127.116.11 2379/tcp Healthy with 3 known peers kubeapi-load-balancer/0* active idle 1 18.104.22.168 443/tcp Loadbalancer ready. kubernetes-master/0* active idle 4 22.214.171.124 6443/tcp Kubernetes master running. flannel/3 active idle 126.96.36.199 Flannel subnet 10.1.78.1/24 kubernetes-worker/0 active idle 2 188.8.131.52 80/tcp,443/tcp Kubernetes worker running. flannel/1 active idle 184.108.40.206 Flannel subnet 10.1.38.1/24 kubernetes-worker/1* active idle 7 220.127.116.11 80/tcp,443/tcp Kubernetes worker running. flannel/2 active idle 18.104.22.168 Flannel subnet 10.1.68.1/24 kubernetes-worker/2 active idle 8 22.214.171.124 80/tcp,443/tcp Kubernetes worker running. flannel/0* active idle 126.96.36.199 Flannel subnet 10.1.73.1/24 Machine State DNS Inst id Series AZ Message 0 started 188.8.131.52 i-065eab4eabc691b25 xenial us-east-2a running 1 started 184.108.40.206 i-0b332955f028d6281 xenial us-east-2b running 2 started 220.127.116.11 i-0879ef1ed95b569bc xenial us-east-2a running 3 started 18.104.22.168 i-08a7b364fc008fc85 xenial us-east-2c running 4 started 22.214.171.124 i-0f92d3420b01085af xenial us-east-2a running 5 started 126.96.36.199 i-0271f6448cebae352 xenial us-east-2c running 6 started 188.8.131.52 i-0789ef5837e0669b3 xenial us-east-2b running 7 started 184.108.40.206 i-02f110b0ab042f7ac xenial us-east-2b running 8 started 220.127.116.11 i-086852bf1bee63d4e xenial us-east-2c running Relation provider Requirer Interface Type Message easyrsa:client etcd:certificates tls-certificates regular easyrsa:client kubeapi-load-balancer:certificates tls-certificates regular easyrsa:client kubernetes-master:certificates tls-certificates regular easyrsa:client kubernetes-worker:certificates tls-certificates regular etcd:cluster etcd:cluster etcd peer etcd:db flannel:etcd etcd regular etcd:db kubernetes-master:etcd etcd regular kubeapi-load-balancer:loadbalancer kubernetes-master:loadbalancer public-address regular kubeapi-load-balancer:website kubernetes-worker:kube-api-endpoint http regular kubernetes-master:cni flannel:cni kubernetes-cni subordinate kubernetes-master:kube-api-endpoint kubeapi-load-balancer:apiserver http regular kubernetes-master:kube-control kubernetes-worker:kube-control kube-control regular kubernetes-worker:cni flannel:cni kubernetes-cni subordinate
After the cluster is deployed you may assume control over the cluster from any kubernetes-master, or kubernetes-worker node.
If you didn’t use conjure-up, you will first need to download the credentials and client application to your local workstation:
Create the kubectl config directory.
mkdir -p ~/.kube
Copy the kubeconfig file to the default location.
juju scp kubernetes-master/0:/home/ubuntu/config ~/.kube/config
The next step is to install the kubectl client on your local machine. The recommended way to do this on Ubuntu is using the kubectl snap (https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/tools/install-kubectl/#install-with-snap-on-ubuntu).
The following command should be run on the machine you wish to use to control the kubernetes cluster:
sudo snap install kubectl --classic
This will install and deploy the kubectl binary. You may need to restart your terminal as your $PATH may have been updated.
Query the cluster:
Kubernetes master is running at https://18.104.22.168:443 Heapster is running at https://22.214.171.124:443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/heapster/proxy KubeDNS is running at https://126.96.36.199:443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns/proxy Grafana is running at https://188.8.131.52:443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana/proxy InfluxDB is running at https://184.108.40.206:443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-influxdb/proxy
Congratulations, you’ve now set up a Kubernetes cluster!
Want larger Kubernetes nodes? It is easy to request different sizes of cloud
resources from Juju by using constraints. You can increase the amount of
CPU or memory (RAM) in any of the systems requested by Juju. This allows you
to fine tune the Kubernetes cluster to fit your workload. Use flags on the
bootstrap command or as a separate
juju constraints command. Look to the
Juju documentation for machine
Need more workers? We just add more units:
juju add-unit kubernetes-worker
Or multiple units at one time:
juju add-unit -n3 kubernetes-worker
You can also ask for specific instance types or other machine-specific constraints. See the constraints documentation for more information. Here are some examples, note that generic constraints such as
mem are more portable between clouds. In this case we’ll ask for a specific instance type from AWS:
juju set-constraints kubernetes-worker instance-type=c4.large juju add-unit kubernetes-worker
You can also scale the etcd charm for more fault tolerant key/value storage:
juju add-unit -n3 etcd
It is strongly recommended to run an odd number of units for quorum.
If you used conjure-up to create your cluster, you can tear it down with
conjure-down. If you used juju directly, you can tear it down by destroying the Juju model or the controller. Use the
juju switch command to get the current controller name:
juju switch juju destroy-controller $controllername --destroy-all-models
This will shutdown and terminate all running instances on that cloud.
The Ubuntu Kubernetes deployment uses open-source operations, or operations as code, known as charms. These charms are assembled from layers which keeps the code smaller and more focused on the operations of just Kubernetes and its components.
The Kubernetes layer and bundles can be found in the
project on github.com:
Feature requests, bug reports, pull requests and feedback are appreciated.
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